Using BPF to Transform SSH Sessions into Structured Events

Teleport 4.2 introduced a new feature called Enhanced Session Recording that takes an unstructured SSH session and outputs a stream of structured events. It’s the next step in Teleport’s evolution that uses new technology (eBPF or now simply known as BPF) to close some gaps in Teleport’s audit abilities. Below you can see an illustration of this feature and if you keep reading, we’ll get into some of the technical details.

Figure 1: Demonstration of how Enhanced Session Recording transforms an unstructured SSH session into a stream of structured events.

Background

Teleport has included session recordings since the initial version. Session recordings capture everything that the user sees printed to the terminal and can later be played back like a video for auditing purposes. This has an inherent advantage: these recordings are easy to understand and provide valuable context around what a user was doing during the session.

However, it also has some disadvantages, mainly that there are a variety of ways a user can bypass the session recording.

Furthermore, due to the unstructured nature of a TTY stream, session recordings can be somewhat difficult to ingest and monitor.

Implementation

To close this gap in auditing, Teleport needed a way to transform an unstructured SSH session into a structured stream of events that occur during that session. What should those structured events contain? As a starting point, we wanted to show what program was executing (program on disk) and what was it doing (its behavior).

We investigated a variety of approaches. The things we looked into varied from ad-hoc approaches like regex pattern matching to more complex attempts like parsing the raw SSH session ourselves. We also investigated a variety of APIs and systems that Linux provides like Audit, fanotify, and BPF.

We had a couple of critical criteria when selecting which technology to build on.

These ad-hoc approaches all suffered from the false positive problem. There is no way that we could parse and interpret the stream of bytes that compose a SSH session with enough accuracy to not cause alert fatigue.

We investigated other approaches. We ruled out Linux Audit due to performance reasons. This is something Dino Dai Zovi has mentioned on several occasions.

When looking at file system access some alternatives exist. The two that stood out the most are inotify and fanotify. The lack of recursive directory monitoring in inotify makes it a non-starter for Teleport. fanotify is more promising, but it has two problems.

With these considerations in mind, we ended up building a solution around a few BPF programs that reduced the false positives and had minimal impact on performance. For a more in depth discussion about the alternatives, take a look at the Alternatives section below.

What is BPF?

Brendan Gregg, a prolific author of BPF programs, has frequently said it’s “a new type of software.” BPF allows userspace programs to hook and emit events from certain places within the kernel in a safe and performant manner.

What does safe and performant mean? In this context, “safe” means BPF programs can not get stuck in infinite loops bringing down the system. BPF programs are unlikely to crash the entire operating system like a kernel module has the potential to. BPF programs are also performant, dropping events if they can not be consumed fast enough instead of dragging down the entire systems performance with it.

How does Teleport use BPF?

Teleport uses three BPF programs at the moment: execsnoop to capture program execution, opensnoop to capture files opened by a program, and tcpconnect to capture TCP connections established by a program.

To get a better understanding of the power of these BPF programs, take a look at the output of execsnoop when running man ls.

# ./execsnoop
Tracing exec()s. Ctrl-C to end.
   PID   PPID ARGS
 20139  20135 mawk -W interactive -v o=1 -v opt_name=0 -v name= [...]
 20140  20138 cat -v trace_pipe
 20171  16743 man ls
 20178  20171 preconv -e UTF-8
 20181  20171 pager -s
 20180  20171 nroff -mandoc -rLL=173n -rLT=173n -Tutf8
 20179  20171 tbl
 20184  20183 locale charmap
 20185  20180 groff -mtty-char -Tutf8 -mandoc -rLL=173n -rLT=173n
 20186  20185 troff -mtty-char -mandoc -rLL=173n -rLT=173n -Tutf8
 20187  20185 grotty

Figure 2: Sample output of execsnoop when running of man ls provided by Brendan Gregg.

You can already start seeing the power of BPF programs. What seemed like simply running the man binary turned out to be the execution of a variety of other programs under the hood.

Teleport embeds these programs within its binary and when Enhanced Session Recording is enabled, it builds and runs them.

Figure 3: The BPF components that compose Teleport Enhanced Session Recording

On their own, these programs are excellent tools for debugging and tracing because they tell you what’s executing on the whole system, rather being limited to one user. In fact, that’s how we initially ran into these tools: we used them to debug some issues with Teleport that were causing it to run out of file descriptors in certain scenarios. However, our goals with Teleport were a bit different. We wanted to correlate program execution with an SSH session and identity.

To correlate program execution with a particular SSH session, we use cgroups (cgroupv2 in particular). When Teleport starts a SSH session, it first re-launches itself and places itself within a cgroup. This allows not only that process, but all future processes that Teleport launches to be tracked with a unique ID. The BPF programs that Teleport runs have been updated to also emit the cgroup ID of the program executing them. This allows us to correlate events with a particular SSH session and identity.

Limitations

We’re not done with Enhanced Session Recording. There are clearly some gaps that still exist and we’ll be addressing them in the future.

Until that post is up, it’s worth pointing out that with session recording, Teleport is able to capture the stream of bytes that compose a session due to its privileged position (the stream of bytes must flow through Teleport). Critically, the integrity of a session recording does not rely on any information self reported by a host. The enhanced auditing, however, relies on the host accurately reporting information to Teleport. If the integrity of the host is compromised, the integrity of the enhanced auditing is inherently compromised. Furthermore, Teleport only monitors a subset of system calls that we felt were most critical, not all of them.

That means, at the moment, Enhanced Session Recording works best for non-root users. Users who have access to root can disable Enhanced Session Recording in a variety of manners.

Getting Started

With the background out of the way, you can use this script on Github Gist to take Enhanced Session Recording for a spin yourself to see its power.

First spin up an Ubuntu 19.04 or RHEL/CentOS 8 VM and run the script linked to above. This script simply installs kernel headers and bcc-tools, the prerequisites for running Enhanced Session Recording. It also installs jq, but that’s more to help in visualizing the structured event stream.

Once you’ve typed in curl http://www.gravitational.com to the terminal like the instructions say, you should see something like the following printed on the screen.

{
  "argv": [
    "http://www.gravitational.com"
  ],
  "cgroup_id": 4294967355,
  "code": "T4000I",
  "ei": 15,
  "event": "session.command",
  "login": "root",
  "namespace": "default",
  "path": "/bin/curl",
  "pid": 2315,
  "ppid": 2294,
  "program": "curl",
  "return_code": 0,
  "server_id": "e56dc762-0171-4d6e-aa56-24f2ae268c7f",
  "sid": "72aabcd8-38c8-11ea-af55-42010a800031",
  "time": "2020-01-17T01:27:05.07Z",
  "uid": "4b493296-7df2-4ec7-9282-a19c0d98e261",
  "user": "test-user"
}
{
  "cgroup_id": 4294967355,
  "code": "T4002I",
  "dst_addr": "104.24.97.116",
  "dst_port": 80,
  "ei": 0,
  "event": "session.network",
  "login": "root",
  "namespace": "default",
  "pid": 2315,
  "program": "curl",
  "server_id": "e56dc762-0171-4d6e-aa56-24f2ae268c7f",
  "sid": "72aabcd8-38c8-11ea-af55-42010a800031",
  "src_addr": "10.128.0.49",
  "time": "2020-01-17T01:27:05.145Z",
  "uid": "42831223-1da2-4b26-a783-08060fd8d7b1",
  "user": "test-user",
  "version": 4
}

From this you can see that the curl program was executed by the user in two ways. The first is the execution of the program itself. The second is the behavior of the program, curl made a network request and you can see that as well.

You can try other things, like scripts or other forms of obfuscation, and you should see the results of execution in the logs.

Requirements

The minimum requirements for Teleport Enhanced Session Recording is Linux Kernel 4.18 with BPF support enabled. There are several distributions where you get this out of the box, including Ubuntu 19.04, Debian 10, and RHEL/CentOS 8.

You’ll also need to install kernel headers and bcc-tools. For the operating systems listed above, you can install these from packages and it’s simply a matter of running yum install -y kernel-headers bcc-tools or apt install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r) bpfcc-tools. If bcc-tools have not been packaged, you’ll have to build them from source.

To enable Enhanced Session Recording in Teleport, simply toggle it on in file configuration like so:

    ssh_service:
       enhanced_recording:
          enabled: yes

Conclusion

While no monitoring system is entirely infallible, using a strategy of defense in depth with multiple safeguards can help you identify issues and take appropriate action. Teleport’s Enhanced Session Recording can add vital extra visibility into commands being run on your systems.

security-audit enhanced-session-recording teleport 4.2

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