The purpose of this Quick Start Guide is to quickly evaluate Gravity by using a real world example.
We believe in learning by doing!
This guide will use Mattermost, an open sourced chat application for teams, as a sample application. Mattermost represents a fairly typical web application and consists of an HTTP request handling process which connects to a PostgreSQL instance.
This Quick Start Guide will walk you through the process of packaging Mattermost for private deployments. Before we start, please take a look at the Gravity Overview to get familiar with basic concepts of the Gravity system.
Gravity is a Linux-based toolkit. By default it supports 64-bit versions of the following Linux distributions as specified here
If you have a need to support a Linux distribution not listed above, Gravitational offers Implementation Services that may be able to assist you.
Additionally, this guide requires Docker version 1.8 or newer. Run
before continuing to make sure you have Docker up and running on your
You will also need
git to be able to download Mattermost code from Github.
Getting the Tools
Gravity consists of three major components:
tele: the CLI tool which is used for packaging and publishing applications.
tsh: the SSH client for establishing secure SSH connections between the Ops Center and the application instances running behind firewalls on private clouds.
tshis a part of Gravitational Teleport, a free open source SSH server developed, maintained and supported by Gravitational. It can be used independently from Gravity.
- Ops Center: the Web UI for managing published applications and remotely accessing private cloud deployments.
Installing Gravity Tools
Let's start by installing
tsh CLI tools onto your machine. You
need to have
# Download the latest version (this includes pre-releases and beta releases): $ curl https://get.gravitational.io/telekube/install | bash # ... or, if a specific version is needed: $ curl https://get.gravitational.io/telekube/install/5.2.3 | bash
To make sure the installation succeeded, try typing
Next, download Mattermost, the sample application used for this tutorial:
$ git clone https://github.com/gravitational/quickstart.git
Packaging the Application
There are three major logical steps in preparing an application to be deployed via Gravity:
- Creating Docker containers for application components.
- Creating Kubernetes definitions for application components, this enables your application to run on Kubernetes.
- Packaging "kubernetized" application into a single self-deployable tarball (an "Application Bundle").
Once you complete these 3 steps, you can use the resulting tarball to distribute application manually, or you can publish it by uploading it into the Ops Center.
Before an application (Mattermost in our case) can be packaged and published via Gravity, you need to "containerize" it first.
The sample project you have fetched via
git above contains Docker files
for Mattermost, as well as its Kubernetes resources.
Run this to build Mattermost containers:
$ cd quickstart/mattermost/worker $ docker build -t mattermost-worker:2.2.0 .
When the docker build is done, return to the quickstart home directory.
$ cd ../.. $ pwd /home/user/quickstart
Migrating to Kubernetes
Making Mattermost run on Kubernetes is easy. The quickstart repository you have cloned above includes the YAML definitions of Kubernetes objects in resources/mattermost.yaml but you are welcome to change it to your liking.
Now you can package Mattermost into an Application Bundle:
$ tele build -o mattermost.tar mattermost/resources/app.yaml
The sample Mattermost application is packaged as a Helm chart so you will
helm installed on the machine performing the build. See Installing Helm.
The command above does the following:
- Scans Kubernetes resources for the Docker images.
- Packages (vendors) Docker images into the Application Bundle.
- Removes duplicate container image layers, reducing the size of the Application Bundle.
- Downloads Kubernetes and its dependencies, like Docker.
- Packages downloaded dependencies into the Application Bundle, as well.
This may take a while, about 2-3 minutes depending on your Internet connection.
mattermost.tar file is about 1.8GB and it is entirely
self-sufficient. It contains everything: Kubernetes, the Docker engine,
the Docker registry and the Mattermost itself: everything one needs to get
Mattermost up and running on any fleet of Linux servers (or into someone's
The resulting bundle even has a built-in graphical installer, i.e. can be given away as a free download to people who are not cloud experts.
While the resulting Application Bundle can be used as is, Gravity also allows you to publish it in your Ops Center for distribution. Publishing it in the Ops Center also allows you to see how many instances of the application are running and even connect to them remotely.
To publish an application, you have to connect to the Ops Center first.
You should already have an account setup with Gravitational - usually available
To log in to to the Ops Center using the CLI:
$ tele login -o [yourdomain].gravitational.io
If you are using a guest environment, like Vagrant on macOS, you may see an error when attempting due to network restrictions. If so, first get a temporary key from your host environment with the following command:
$ tele keys new
The response should include an API key to use. Now use that key to log in as follows:
tele login -o [yourdomain].gravitational.io --key=[key returned in previous step]
Once you are successfully logged in, you can publish the application into the Ops Center:
$ tele push mattermost.tar
This uploads the Application Bundle into the Ops Center you have logged in into.
Now the application is ready to be distributed and installed.
Installing the Application
As shown in the Overview, there are two ways to install an Application Bundle packaged with Gravity:
- Online, via the Ops Center.
- Offline, via a downloadable tarball.
This method of installation is called online installation and it assumes that the end user (a person installing the application) has access to the Internet.
The simplest way to launch an online installer is to log in to the Ops Center and click on "Install" in the dropdown menu for the published Application. This will take you to a URL where the installation wizard will run.
To run an offline installation:
- Log into Ops Center and click on "Download" link in the dropdown menu.
- Upload the tarball to the server (node) you wish to install Mattermost on.
- Unpack the tarball via
tar -xf <tarball.tar>into a Linux machine.
./installCLI command and follow the instructions.
The installer will copy itself to additional cluster nodes, if needed.
Non Interactive Installation on Vagrant
To test automatic non-interactive installation on a local Vagrant box:
tele build -o mattermost.tar mattermost/resources/app.yaml
Cluster administrative control panel login will be available at https://172.28.128.101:32009/
with the username
[email protected] and password
Mattermost UI will be running on http://172.28.128.101:32010.
Now with at least one instance of Mattermost running, you can go back to the
machine where you packaged it with the
tele tool and execute:
$ tsh clusters Cluster Name Status ------------ ------ yourcompany.gravitational.io online mattermost online
You can now see the "mattermost" cluster and you can connect to it by running:
$ tele login mattermost
Now you can run
tsh ls to see the nodes and
tsh ssh for connecting to them
via SSH. See more in Remote Management section.
This is a brief overview of how publishing and distributing an application works using Gravity. Feel free to dive further into the documentation for more details.
Gravity avoids proprietary configuration formats or closed source tools. Outside of having a small Gravity-specific application manifest, your application is just a regular Kubernetes deployment. Gravity simply makes it portable and deployable into private infrastructure.
If you need help packaging your application into Docker containers, or if you need help packaging your application for Kubernetes, our implementation services team can help ([email protected]).